Cannabis Meaning in Urdu
1 of 2) Cannabis : چرس کا پودا Chars Ka Poda : (noun) any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs.
2 of 2) Cannabis : بھنگ Bahng : (noun) the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect.
Cannabis in Book Titles
The Pot Book: A Complete Guide to Cannabis.
Handbook of Cannabis.
Hemp for Health: The Medicinal and Nutritional Uses of Cannabis Sativa.
Annual One-Year : سالانہ Salana : completing its life cycle within a year. “A border of annual flowering plants”
Any : کوئی Koi : to any degree or extent. “It isn`t any great thing”
Coarse Common Rough-Cut Uncouth Vulgar : خراب Kharab : lacking refinement or cultivation or taste. “He had coarse manners but a first-rate mind”
Considered : سوچا سمجھا Socha Samjha : carefully weighed. “A considered opinion”
Consist Dwell Lie Lie In : پیدا ہونا Paida Hona : originate (in). “The problems dwell in the social injustices in this city”
Drug : دوا Dawa : a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic. “You shouldn`t take drug if you`re suffering from depression as it`s side effects are worse”
Fiber Fibre : تار Tar : a slender and greatly elongated substance capable of being spun into yarn.
Flower : پھول Phool : a plant cultivated for its blooms or blossoms. “Sajid, take these flowers back”
Articulatio Genus Genu Human Knee Knee Knee Joint : گھٹنا Ghutna : hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella.
Green : ہرا رنگ میں بدلنا Hara Rang Mein Badalna : turn or become green. “The red light will turn green”
Halter Hangman’s Halter Hangman’s Rope Hemp Hempen Necktie : پھانسی کی رسی Phansi Ki Rassi : a rope that is used by a hangman to execute persons who have been condemned to death by hanging.
Illegitimate Illicit Outlaw Outlawed Unlawful : خلاف قانون Khilaaf Qanoon : contrary to or forbidden by law. “An outlaw suspended officer arrested a noble boy in a cannabis case and asked his colleagues on duty to lock him up”
It : یہ Ye : Used of a nonhuman entity. “It is out of the question”
Foliage Leaf Leafage : پتا Patta : the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants. “The leaves are falling down”
Most : زیادہ تر Zyada Tar : (superlative of `many` used with count nouns and often preceded by `the`) quantifier meaning the greatest in number. “Most people like eggs”
Narcotic : نشہ آور دوا Nasha Aawar Dawa : a drug that produces numbness or stupor; often taken for pleasure or to reduce pain; extensive use can lead to addiction.
Plant Set : پودا لگانا Powda Lagana : put or set (seeds, seedlings, or plants) into the ground. “They have planted mini plant”
Little Small : صغیر Sageer : limited or below average in number or quantity or magnitude or extent. “A little dining room”
Soft : نرم Naram : yielding readily to pressure or weight.
Rugged Tough : مشکل Mushkil : very difficult; severely testing stamina or resolution. “A rugged competitive examination”
Exploited Ill-Used Put-Upon Used Victimised Victimized : متاثرہ شخص Mutasra Shakhs : of persons; taken advantage of. “After going out of his way to help his friend get the job he felt not appreciated but used”
Afford Give Yield : دینا Dena : be the cause or source of. “Who do I give?”
Next of Cannabis
Cannabis Sativa : a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared.
Previous of Cannabis
Canis Lupus Tundrarum : wolf of Arctic North America having white fur and a black-tipped tail.
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Hemp (Cannabis sativa)
Hemp, Indian hemp, cannabis, marihuana, marijuana, ganja, hashish [English]; chanvre, chanvre indien, chènevis, chanvre textile, chanvre industriel, chanvre agricole [French]; cáñamo, cáñamo industria [Spanish]; Nutzhanf, Industriehanf [German]; canapa [Italian]; cânhamo, cânhamo industrial [Portuguese]; القنب [Arabic]; Пенька́ [Russian]; 麻 [Chinese]
The taxonomy of Cannabis is debated. Some authors consider Cannabis sativa L., Cannabis indica Lam. and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch. to be separate species while others recognise two subspecies, Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa and Cannabis sativa subsp. indica. Studies on cannabinoid variation tend to support that C. sativa and C. indica are separate species but more research is needed (Hillig et al., 2004).
- Oil plants and by-products
- Plant products and by-products
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual erect herb up to 3 m (or more) tall. It has palmately compound leaves with 5-11 leaflets (usually 7-9). “Sativa” varieties are taller than the bushier “Indica” varieties. All varieties belong to two main types:
- Varieties used for medical and recreational drug production due to the high levels of psychoactive chemicals found in their leaves, stems and flowers.
- Industrial hemp varieties that contain very low levels of those substances and are grown for the production of fibre, seeds and oil.
Due to the dual purpose of hemp, its cultivation is subject to legal control in many countries.
Hemp fibre is extremely durable and was originally used to make strong materials such as ropes, canvas and fishnets. Now it also provides specialty paper, absorbant animal bedding, and is incorporated in composite materials. Cold pressure of the seeds provides a green edible oil, while a second pressure with heat gives a brown oil used in paints and varnishes or as a luminant. The seeds from industrial hemp are a common ingredient of birdseed mixes and are also used as fish bait. The oil cake resulting from oil extraction can be fed to livestock. The seeds and oil can be also used for human food (Boutin et al., 2005; Ecocrop, 2010; Ecoport, 2010; eFloras, 2010; Göhl, 1982; Terres Inovia, 2015).
Hemp is indigenous to Central Asia or China but is now widespread in temperate countries, nearly worldwide. It is a vigourous plant that grows best with average temperatures between 13 and 22°C and adapts well to different types of soils, in particular heavy, non-acid ones (Ecoport, 2010; eFloras, 2010).
In temperate countries, industrial hemp does not require irrigation and herbicides, and needs relatively low levels of N fertilizer (70 N units/ha). Using hemp fibre to create novel materials (such as polypropylene-hemp composite, or concrete-hemp building material) can have positive environmental impacts (Boutin et al., 2005).
In countries where hemp is grown, the seeds are used for cattle and poultry as a concentrated energy feed. Hemp seed is relatively rich in protein (20-27% DM) and oil (36% DM). Hemp seed oil meal has a higher protein content (29-35% DM) and its residual oil content depends on the extraction method. Both products, and especially the oil meal, have a relatively high fibre content that limits their use, especially in pig and poultry feeds (Göhl, 1982). Hemp oil is rich in linoleic acid (C18:2, 53-60%) and linolenic acid (C18:3, 15-19%) (Yu et al., 2005).
Hemp leaves, stems and flowers contain cannabinoids, psychoactive molecules that affect the central nervous system. Delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) is considered the most active psychoactive agent. Varieties grown for fibre and oil have much lower levels of THC (less than 0.2%) than varieties grown for drug production (Kahn, 2005; Terres Inovia, 2015). No pathological side effects have been reported for the by-products of industrial hemp. However, residues of ganja drug production consisting in dust, leaves, branches and burnt seed samples reduced feed intake and caused drowsiness, reduced activity and incoordinated movement in cattle, particularly when the residues were washed. Water treatment seems to have increased the concentration of psychoactive components, resulting in higher toxicity and lesser palatability (Jain et al., 1988).
Hemp seeds have a high energy content, and are a traditional staple of mixes for pet birds because of their low cost. Seed-eating migratory birds are attracted to hemp fields at harvest time, and, in many countries, the seeds have been used as poultry feed (Khan et al., 2009). The high concentration of hemp seed oil in polyunsaturated fatty acids has led to renewed interest in hemp seeds and hemp seed oil meal for improving the quality of poultry products.
In Pakistan, up to 20% dried and crushed hemp seeds have been used successfully in broiler diets and resulted in higher breast, leg and thigh weight. This positive effect has been linked to the combination of a good protein and lipid quality associated to other beneficial properties, such as the lack of trypsin inhibitors and the antioxydant activity of cannabidiol (Khan et al., 2009). Feeding broilers with hemp seed powder (at 20%) resulted in better feed conversion ratio, higher live-weight gain, lower age at slaughter, and lower mortality rate (Khan et al., 2010). In Iran, hemp seed included at up to 7.5% in broiler diets had no detrimental effect on performance, and reduced serum cholesterol (Mahmoudi et al., 2012). It has been possible to partly replace soybean meal by hemp seed meal in broiler diets. Supplementation of hemp seed meal at 1.5-9.0% had no adverse effects on immunological factors. Levels of 1.5-3% might promote B cell differentiation and maturation as well as immunity. Levels of 4.5-7.0% enhanced nitrogen utilization (Ma Li et al., 2007).
Two trials in Sweden have studied the use of hemp seed cake in organic broilers. A first study concluded that the nutritional value of hemp seed cake partly resembles of rapeseed cake and that a 30 % inclusion rate showed no negative effects on the production nor the palatability of the feed when fed during the days 28-35 post-hatch (Kalmendal, 2008). In a second study, the inclusion of hemp seed cake in the diets of fast-growing organic broilers (10% at 10-28 days, 20% at 28-70 days) did not affect production performance or mortality. No effect of hemp seed cake inclusion in the feed was seen on the number of Clostridium perfringens in the caeca. The high fibre content in the hemp diet resulted in inferior litter condition likely affecting the leg and foot health of the birds, resulting in lesser use of outdoor pasture (Eriksson et al., 2012).
Several trials have concluded on the beneficial effects of hemp seed cake on the fatty acid composition of egg yolk. In Pakistan, supplementation of layer diets with 25% hemp seeds decreased egg yolk total cholesterol, and the content in monounsaturated fatty acids, while total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased significantly (Shahid et al., 2015). In Canada, feeding laying hens with up to 20% cold-pressed hemp seed meal had no effect on egg production, feed consumption, feed efficiency, body weight change or egg quality. Increasing dietary inclusion of hemp seed meal produced eggs with lower concentrations of palmitic acid and higher concentrations of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids (Silversides et al., 2005). Likewise, the inclusion of hemp seeds in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20% did not adversely affect performance and resulted in the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs (Gakhar et al., 2012). In Germany, a trial with laying hens concluded that compound feeds with up to 10% hemp seed cake did not negatively influence laying performance but enriched yolk fat with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Halle et al., 2013).
Feeding rabbits with hemp oil cake is possible but it has a moderate energy value for rabbits, due to its high fibre content that reduces diet digestibility. It does not have significant organoleptic effects on fresh rabbit meat (Lebas et al., 1988).
In ‘landmark decision’, Pakistan approves industrial use of cannabis and hemp
Pakistan has approved the domestication and commercialisation of medicinal and industrial cannabis and hemp at a Herbal Medicine Park in Jhelum, minister for science and technology Fawad Chaudhry tweeted.
Chaudhry called it a landmark decision that will help Pakistan enter the billion-dollar Cannabidiol (CBD) market.
“Cabinet has approved first license for @MinistryofST and PCSIR [Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research] for industrial and medical use of Hemp… [The] landmark decision will place Pakistan in billions of USD CBD market,” he posted from his Twitter handle.
The move comes after comprehensive deliberations between different government departments. To produce the CBD, Pakistan plans to import a specific variety of cannabis seeds.
“CBD compound plays an important role in therapeutic medicine. After 2016, a breakthrough research was unveiled which prompted China to set up a cannabis research department and is now cultivating hemp on 40,000 acres, and Canada is cultivating it on 100,000 acres,” Chaudhry told reporters during a press briefing in Islamabad.
He said that the plant Pakistan plans to grow contains legal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — around 0.3 percent or below. At higher levels, THC is intoxicating and illegal in many parts of the world.
The minister said that hemp seeds are used for producing oil, leaves for developing medication, while stems are used for fibres which are gradually replacing cotton in the textile industry.
“Worldwide, this fibre is replacing cotton. Clothes, bags, and other textile products are being made using this plant’s fibre. This is a $25 billion market and Pakistan can take a big share in this market,” Chaudhry said, adding, “this is under government control, so further research can be done and adequate safeguards through ministry of narcotics can be placed.”
The minister expected the hemp market to generate $1 billion in revenue for Pakistan in the next three years when research, cultivation, production, and exports for medical and industrial purposes are underway. The ministry has scouted areas in the Potohar region in northern Punjab, which is considered adequate for growing hemp due to its climate.
This is part of the science ministry’s larger initiative on precision agriculture under which niche projects focused on non-traditional agriculture are under development.