Is it legal to buy marijuana seeds in australia
October) Click the links below to see a list of herb, vegetable and flower seeds suitable for sowing in October in your climate (Australia). Depending on where you want to cultivate the plants, there are numerous marijuana strains that you can buy on the internet. Please read the various pages on the website to understand Payment / Postage etc. A genus or species shown in this colour indicates a synonym. If a blend has both a warm season and a cool season grass, for example, the cool season grass will grow happily in winter, allowing the warm season grass to go dormant, and the opposite will take place in the summer. We stock a wide range of seeds both old and new varieties, we especially love heirloom (or heritage) seeds Silk Road Tulip-EXQUISITE MULTI-PETALED $17.00. Found inside – Page 172Bonney, N., 1994. What Seed Is That? A Field Guide to Identification, Collection and Germination of Native Seed in South Australia. Neville Bonney, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, pp. 324. Forbes-Smith, M., Paton, J.E., 2002. East and West Coast growers to benefit from new wheat variety releases. Traditional use. Australia’s favourite gardening community. We have a range of items available that are suited to beginner or expert growers. We sell a large and constantly changing variety of awesome heirloom seeds, plants, and a whole heap of other unusual stuff too! No worries, we deliver to all states. Southern Star Seeds loves Cannabis. We have a contact us page or email details if you ever get stuck with questions. TERMS & LEGAL. With frequent dry spells and water restrictions, Australia’s Wildflowers are every gardener’s dream come true! Choose the season you are interested in. ***SHIPPING AVAILABLE FROM WITHIN AUSTRALIA FOR SOUTHERN STAR SEEDS ONLY (domestic mail = no customs)***. We have never had a single lost or confiscated package. Found insideClarke, P A. 1985, ‘Fruits and seeds as foods for southern South Australian Aborigines’, Journal of the Anthropological Society of South Australia, 23(9):9–22. —— 1986a, Aboriginal use of plant exudates, foliage and fungi as food and . Species and varieties of plant you just won’t see in the local supermarkets. This tree bears small, orange-coloured fruits with highly poisonous seeds that are neurotoxic – they harm the body’s nervous system, causing convulsions, paralysis and even death. Packet $1.25 100g $4.25 250g $9.24 1kg $26.88. We take pride in stocking only high quality, well renowned strains that have been tried and tested for growing in environments like Australia. Why Native grass? I will not use the information provided on this website for any illegal activities. Deciding to buy flower seeds should never be seen as pure self indulgence. Naracoorte Seeds Specialty Mixes. We’re excited to be bringing Australia’s canola growers even more choice for the 2021 season. Join the club and receive an exclusive gift, valued at $30. $17.00. Everything from native Australian bushtucker, rare fruit, unusual heirloom vegetables and herbs from around the world, to dried herbs and organic insecticides, and absolutely everything we can rustle up in between! Shop Seeds. Found inside – Page 25613 ( 1929 ) ; in 1929 he presented his collection of driftseeds to Stellenbosch Univ . , which awarded him an honorary D.Sc. . to Australia and was employed as Forester to the Ballarat Water Commission , finally settling in Victoria . We ship seeds discreetly to all states and in most cases they arrive in 2-3 weeks. Viability tests are carried out regularly to ensure an estimated germination rate of 90%-100%. Sort By. Leaf vegetable/salad green. Caveman Seeds legally sells seeds as agricultural souvenirs for collectable and topical use ONLY.. Plus two free packets of some popular seeds – Tomato ‘Black Cherry’ and Lettuce Heirloom Mix. They are found in south east Australia, extracting the seed from casuarina cones supplemented by occasional insect larvae. Refine Search. Warm Climate- Brisbane, Bundaberg, Carnarvon, etc. We develop high-yielding products which are tested and trialled in local conditions. Advertising: Gather personally identifiable information such as name and location, Functionality: Remember social media settingsl Functionality: Remember selected region and country, Advertising: Use information for tailored advertising with third parties, Advertising: Allow you to connect to social sites, Advertising: Identify device you are using, Advertising: Allow you to connect to social sitesl Advertising: Identify device you are using. There is little known about the germination ecology of this species, making management of the weed more difficult. ‘Collards- Georgia Southern’ seeds. Full sun or part shade. Care. Found inside – Page 34Gulfs: Gulf of Carpentaria: •forms part of the northern coast of Australia •feeds into the Arafura Sea Joseph Bonaparte: eforms part of the northern coast of Australia -seeds into the Timor Sea Spencer; eforms part of the southern coast . Found inside – Page 86Differences in the distribution and seed germination behaviour of populations of Bromus rigidus and Bromus diandrus in South Australia: adaptations to habitat and implications for weed management. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 57, 213À219. Found inside – Page 130Both originated in the southern Australian and / or Antarctic region ( Dettmann , 1989 ) in the Late Cretaceous . The seeds of Nothofagus do not remain viable for more than one year and rarely disperse more than a few metres from the . Wattles belong to the Acacia genus comprising over 1300 species worldwide with over 1000 species native to Australia. FREE DELIVERY for Australian orders. We also stock complete grow sets that include seeds, the correct fertiliser and a comprehensive grow bible to use and learn from during your grow. We ship Internationally and Australia wide including Tasmania and WA. All purchases are dispatched using the very best ‘stealth’ shipping methods, and both delivery and germination is 100% guaranteed. Starting at $16.00 American Dream Tulip $16.00. New South Wales; North Territory; Queensland; South Australia; Tasmania; Victoria; Western Australia; Rated 5 out of 5. Shop jumpsuits. We ship seeds discreetly to all states and in most cases they arrive in 2-3 weeks. Important Biosecurity Information – Government regulations prohibit ‘Myrtacea Family’ plants being sent into South Australia & Northern Territory or any live plants being sent to Western Australia, Tasmania or overseas. Found inside – Page 8In the southern Mount Lofty Range areas the dominant formation is the dry sclerophyll forest of Eucalyptus obliqua . is a very variable one ( 13 ) and attempts to establish seed orchards by grafting have commenced in South Australia . International delivery is an extra $AU40.00 flat rate on all orders to cover the extra cost and hassle involved and delivery is a gamble that we no longer recommend or guarantee. To get behind an amazing cause that advocates for the end of prohibition on Cannabis in Australia, check out the Australian Hemp Party and give them some support. As one of the leading seed banks in Australia, we strive to provide the best service and products. Agastache Heather Queen – seed . Here is the place where you can buy Cannabis seeds within Australia! We value (and specialise in) seeds and plants for cool climate. Found inside – Page 184Enchylaena Common shrubs throughout the south-west of Western Australia.Seeds are ready for picking when the outer layer of the fruit is ruby red. They can be found on the plant throughout the year. Eragrostis Easily collected when the . Advertising: Tailor information and advertising to your interests based on e.g. The Diggers Club has been helping home gardeners succeed for over 40 years, with the best range of heirloom seeds, plants, bulbs and trees available. Southern Grains are suppliers for a comprehensive range of agricultural inputs including fertilisers, pasture seed and crop protection products. Trusted Online Seed Store for Australian Home Gardeners. 10 seeds. *TO QUALIFY FOR DOMESTIC SHIPMENT IN AUSTRALIA, YOUR ORDER CAN ONLY CONTAIN SOUTHERN STAR SEEDS!*. The grasses we grow have been selected for their superior growing characteristics and their performance and vigour in a variety of situations and applications. Found inside – Page 685Comparatively few species harvest seeds, e.g. in northern Australia only seven of 120 were true seed harvesters (Greenslade and Mott 1978) and in southern Australia only five out of 37 were seed harvesters (Briese 1982). If good seeds just one is required each 60-60cm. One of our biggest strengths at Naracoorte Seeds is our ability to blend all types of seed together to make a custom mix to suit each paddock because we know how … Transplant carefully (seedlings resent root disturbance) when large enough to handle. Add to Cart. $6.25. Flowers, herbs and veg – grow a complete balcony in one! Our Great Southern Lawn mix is a blend of two of our most renowned lawn varieties, Griffin Weeping grass and Oxley Wallaby grass. Seed Count 110. For the last 25 years, it has been a passion that shows no sign of … 610 views. At Mckays Seeds we like to get ours in early to avoid saturation and with spring well and truly upon us, without further ado we are happy to roll out our list of top five Australian native grasses. FRUIT & VEGETABLES – Plant tomatoes, zucchini and capsicum by the end of January. Online via The Native Shop we sell living plants in various Tubestock sizes as well as seeds and a wide range of fabulous products. One newsletter each month with discount codes, free seed offers and info on new strains. Australian Vegetable and Native seed, We have been growing and harvesting seed for others to enjoy the satisfaction you get when you grow a plant from seed, All seed is germination tested .We have a large range of Australian native trees, shrubs ground cover, Large range of heirloom vegetables. IDEAL SEED FOR SPRING IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 1. A South African favourite due to its delicate sweet flavour. Don’t plant until spring as you need a lot warmer soil than what it is now. Growing Cannabis Seeds in Australia. Buy Marijuana Seeds in Australia. 17,784. The very best seed, bulb, and gifts for Australian gardeners, tested for Australian conditions. Click here to clear any filters that you’ve set or try another search. We are proud to offer the best selection of untreated, non-GMO, heirloom, open pollinated and select hybrid seeds available online for the Australian gardener. 84295. Our weed seed bank has all you need to steer clear away from mould or pests. Found inside – Page 135Australia’s. original. mistletoe. bird. A male Mistletoebird – the bird responsible for ‘planting’ most . Most ejected seeds fall to the ground or adhere to dead sticks – remarkably few end up being deposited on living twigs or . … Heirloom & Untreated Seeds. Add to Cart. the content you have visited before. $1.25. > Autumn. Search using genus name. Southern Harvest. 114 Breona Rd, PO Box 33, South Kilkerran, SA 5573. Seeds of South Australia. Choose a sunny, well-drained, wind-protected position. Seeds of South Australia. Found inside – Page 193the base into 3 ( or by abortion fewer ) 1 – seeded nutlets ; seed black ; leaves few , grasslike , withering early or all reduced to narrow . Six Australian perennials . . Two Australian species and about 30 in South Africa . Planting and crop … Found inside – Page 32The seed is very light, hence it is best to sow broadcast 5 to 10 pounds of handpicked seed per acre. . or plank the seeds in. In the Southern States it is usually best to sow in October or November. . The best handpicked Australian . For information on deleting the cookies, please consult your browser’s help function. $1.25. They are mainly grown in the semi-arid regions of Victoria and South Australia with winter dominant rainfall patterns. Found inside – Page 420Seed dormancy and germination Tropical Australian species tend to have an optimum germination temperature ranging from 20°C to 30°C, whereas southern Australian species tend to have maximum germination at
15°C. This trend is . The cost of weeds to Australian agriculture is more than $4 billion each year. Found inside – Page 140seeds eaten at Yuendumu were intact , suggesting that the flesh and juice of the fruit was the main attraction . . Rabbit bandicoots appear to have disappeared rather suddenly from New South Wales and southern South Australia around . South Australia Seed Marketers is the export arm of Naracoorte Seeds. Found inside – Page 56Edible wattle seeds of Southern Australia by Bruce Maslin , et al . * Based on reports of their utilization as food by Aborigines and other salient features , 47 Acacia species have been identified that have potential for cultivation in . Please feel safe browsing our online catalogue. Sow direct where they are to grow or into trays of Yates Seed Raising Mix. Found inside – Page 343Beasley , J. ( 1993 ) . ‘ Arboreta and gardens of the South Island of New Zealand ‘ Conif . Soc . Austral . Newsl . 12:10 . Beck , W. ( 1992 ) . ‘ Aboriginal preparation of Cycas seeds in Australia ‘ . Econ . Bot . 46 ( 2 ) : 133–147 . This is definitely the place to get cheap weed seeds. Cannabis truly is a remarkable plant with a wealth of uses that mankind is only now starting to realize. There are no results for your search, or the filters you have chosen. Top Cannabis Seeds in South Australia. Contact us today and we’ll get in touch as soon as possible. Found inside – Page 131One rust strain was shown to be more effective at limiting seed production in one plant taxon and the second in the . Key words: integrated control, pasture management, Puccinia cardui-pycnocephali, rust fungus, southern Australia. CSIRO Australia ; The report Wattle Seed Production in low rainfall areas also lists possible species to use for commercial production. Whether you are looking at creating a cottage garden or just wanting to add some colour these seeds will be a good addition to your garden. We sell a large and constantly changing variety of awesome heirloom seeds, plants, and a whole heap of other unusual stuff too! Wildflowers with vibrant colours and shapes unique to Australia. 03 02 01. The trialling of the first lines of forage ryecorn was first conducted in 2006 during the extended drought that parts of Australia were experiencing at the time. Many weeds, particularly those that invade … For more than a decade the Centre has been helping to conserve South Australia’s threatened plant species and support on ground restoration. Pasture Guide Download. Drawing on extensive experience in Australia’s agriculture sector at a national level, our dedicated team offers up-to-date knowledge, reliable advice and personalised customer service. That’s why we encourage our visitors to read reviews about us first to get a better understanding of our services and products before spending money. We are a Melbourne based company supplying affordable seeds to the Australian home gardeners. Get Growing Today! We ship to any part of Australia, including New South Wales, Northern Territory, Tasmania, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Our tools have been selected by us as the most useful and best quality. Browse genera. You can chat with us via the contact us page, email or comment. Grow boosters are a massive thing! Pioneer® Seeds Australia is a hybrid seed company and Australia’s leading hybrid canola, corn, sorghum and grain seed suppliers. Bulk Seed. Your privacy is our Number One concern. For the last 25 years, it has been a passion that shows no sign of letting up anytime soon. For Sale Listing No. AGF Seeds offer quality seed for cropping and pasture farming systems. Travellers on sailing ships headed to Australia must have liked their flavour as they carried the fruit and seed with them.
Where to Buy Cannabis Seeds in South Australia
Consumption of cannabis has been on the rise for the past decade. The rise is attributed to the increase of legislation on the growing and using cannabis for both medicinal and recreational purposes. Likewise, various researches have been initiated to boost the quality of respective cannabis species. In South Australia, there are three primary species of cannabis that are commonly used among the citizenries. From the species, farmers and investors have developed hundreds of more cannabis strains, thus making it difficult for you to effectively choose what is the best or suitable for use.
Is it illegal to Buy Cannabis Seeds in South Australia?
Living in any city such as Adelaide or Mount Gambier located in Southern Australia predisposes you to the strict rules that govern the cultivation and use of marijuana. While living in Australia, the law does not provide for the consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes with no doctor’s prescription. The state has limited consumption of marijuana to medical cases confirmed by doctors.
Nonetheless, recreational use and farming of any amount or species of marijuana are strongly prohibited by South Australia marijuana laws. Contrariwise, you can acquire any type of marijuana seed at peace with no restrictions from the governing agencies. Such seeds can be acquired from well regulated and tax compliant certified stores in the United States.
For the past decade, there have been immense regulatory changes on the cannabis laws in South Australia. The use of marijuana has been restricted to you with a medicinal prescription from a certified and registered doctor. In this regard, marijuana is indicated to serve as a drug for a corresponding ailment. Remarkable efforts have been made to make use of marijuana for recreational purposes legal. This has resulted in the decriminalization of a specified amount of marijuana.
Gone are the days when those found with marijuana would be sentenced for life in prison. Currently, South Australia cannabis laws are a bit friendly, despite, cultivation, possession, and excessive use of marijuana is illegal in South Australia. The rule of law provides that if you are found to be carrying an extra amount of marijuana, you get a fine or receive a short jail term. On the other hand, having large amounts of marijuana or a large portion of land fully covered with marijuana plants can result in long term repercussions from the law. There are several severe penalties developed to deal with such extreme cases.
The South Australian law prohibits possession or consumption of recreational marijuana. There is only one city called Canberra that has legalized the use of recreational marijuana. The city’s governing agencies have warned against the waiver on using recreational marijuana claiming that any abuse will result in default stringent regulatory measures. Nevertheless, the rest of South Australian cities are yet to receive the green light on the use of recreational marijuana. The advances seen throughout the world are laying positive hopes for the legalization of marijuana soon.
On the other hand, the residents are not restricted from buying marijuana seeds online in Australia. The residents can acquire marijuana seeds from the best and certified seed bank from anywhere in the world. Following the restriction of recreational marijuana use, there are no seedbanks selling marijuana species in South Australia. Technological advancements have resulted in the establishment of online shops and seedbanks that sell and deliver marijuana seeds to all cities of South Australia. The souvenir seeds can be purchased from banks rather than buying seeds with cultivation intention.
Following zero restriction of buying and storing souvenir marijuana seeds, you may be interested in importing and subsequently storing seeds for future use. There are no restrictions on importing marijuana seeds into South Australia. Shipping seeds into Adelaide can be done within the stipulated government regulations where all the shipments are checked and certified by respective agencies to ascertain that no illegal merchandise is on the move.
What are the Top Cannabis Seeds in Australia?
If you are planning to purchase marijuana seeds for the first time, you may not be familiar with different types of seeds available in the market. Most seeds in the market are regular which depicts that they have female and male plants. In a bid to attain plants with fewer seeds and huge buds, the male counterparts should be disposed of before pollinating the female counterparts.
On the other hand, new farmers may prefer ordering feminized seeds rather than worrying about pollination between males and females. Growing feminized seeds means there is no reason to plant the male counterparts at all. Rather, the farmer can concentrate on other requirements such as ample lighting cycles in situations where the marijuana strain is planted indoors.
Furthermore, the inexperienced newbies may receive lower yields if you stick to adjusting the light cycles personally. Conversely, the adoption of auto-flowering seeds will significantly save potential yields. These seeds allow flowering in an event where lights are yet to be adjusted on time. So feminized and auto-flowering seeds make it easier for the beginner to grow quality marijuana.
While buying weed in Adelaide, various types of marijuana are being looked for. Such strains include; Auto Blueberry and Big Bud Feminized seeds, Girl Scout Cookies seeds, and Strawberry Cough feminized seeds.
Auto Blueberry Marijuana
This strain was established after crossing Big Bud and Blueberry to achieve a hybrid type that is high yielding. This type of marijuana has beautiful buds that are normally big. Farmers like it for its rapid flowering time as compared to other types of marijuana. This indica strain is well known for its minimal leaves that when consumed leaves you with a relaxation spirit.
Besides, this type has been applied in cases where the user wants to combat pain and stress. The popularity of this type of marijuana comes with its ability to supply 21% of THC content and nine to eleven weeks of flowering time.
This marijuana has unique physical characteristics such as myrtle-green fan leaves that grow from the columnal flowers. The flowers have yellow pistils and translucent trichomes. The plant grows to a height of range 30 to 100 centimeters and has 9 to 11 weeks of growth cycles. Auto Blueberry has been cited in relieving arthritis, migraines, and mild depression.
Girl Scout Cookies
This one of the most popular strains following its high levels of THC. This strain when consumed sends the consumer into the world of euphoria. Undoubtedly, you will experience the relaxation of the whole body. Notably, the happy mood and relaxed mood together with the ‘highness’ are expected to span throughout the day due to the strain’s smoke ability and potency. Despite, Girl Scout Cookies being resistant to both pests and molds, this strain is not recommended for in-experienced farmers.
The strain is an offspring of Durban Poison and OG Kush. Following the new legislation, Girl Scout Cookies are medically applied for treating insomnia. Besides, if you are experiencing chronic pain and aches, you can smoke Girl Scout Cookies to alleviate the pain. Otherwise, the strain’s mood-elevating functionality plays a significant role in the management of stress, episodes of depression among other symptoms of PTSD. Smoking patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease, low appetite, multiple sclerosis, and mild inflammation may receive Girl Scout Cookies as a prescription.
Notably, this type of marijuana has a smooth, mint, and cotton candy aroma that distinguishes it from the rest of the marijuana samples. On tasting, the strain has an earthy, pungent, and spicy flavor. Its THC level is 28 percent especially when grown under favorable weather conditions. Physically, the Girl Scout Cookies appears simple with a stunning light green shade that embodies purple leaves and orange hairs that make this strain unique. Furthermore, this strain grows well in a hydroponic environment, and when the favorable environment is provided within an enclosed housing, the flowering takes 9 to 10 weeks.
Strawberry Cough Fem
While growing, this strain has small and highly potent buds that are normally covered in red hair and smell deliciously as strawberries. This strain is well known for its ability to offer mighty highness that leaves your nerves calm, and energetic. Novice smokers usually have a difficult time coping up with the thick smoke that comes from this strain. This type of marijuana originates from the Sativa Dominant Hybrid whose parents are Strawberry Fields cross Haze.
This strain is known for its energizing, and a steady reduction of anxiety among the users. Likewise, you may feel stimulated after five deep puffs of well-grown Strawberry Cough. The marijuana has a terpene profile that comprises of Linalool, Ocimene, and Caryophyllene. Besides, users distinctively acknowledge the earthy, herbal, sweet, and floral aroma that the mature strain embodies.
Notably, chronic consumers of Strawberry cough may experience dryness of both mouth and eyes. The product has a CBD range of 0 to 1 percent. The percentage of THC ranges from 19 to 23 percent. Physically, the strain is characterized by medium height, green leaves that appear sugary, and flowers that are forest green. The pistils are carrot orange.
Growing, selling and use of marijuana is on the rise in the world today. Various states are formulating and implementing regulations that govern marijuana use in respective regions. Precisely, South Australia is one of the regions where recreational marijuana is illegal. Medicinal marijuana is allowed under a doctor’s prescription. Nonetheless, shipping marijuana seeds into South Australia is not illegal too. Various types of marijuana are grown for various purposes.
High Levels of Adoption Indicate That Harvest Weed Seed Control Is Now an Established Weed Control Practice in Australian Cropping
HWSC systems that target weed seed production during harvest have been in use in Australian crop production systems for over 30 years. Until recently, though, grower adoption of these systems has been relatively low. It is now apparent with the introduction of a range of new weed seed targeting systems that there is renewed grower interest in the use of this approach to weed control. With the aim of determining the current adoption and use of HWSC systems, 600 crop producers from throughout Australia’s cropping regions were interviewed on their adoption and use of these systems. This survey established that 43% of Australian growers are now routinely using HWSC to target weed seed production during grain harvest. The adoption of narrow-windrow burning (30%) was considerably greater than the other currently available techniques of chaff tramlining (7%), chaff carts (3%), bale-direct system (3%), and the Harrington Seed Destructor (HSD) (<1%). When growers were asked about their future use of these systems 82% indicated that they would be using some form of HWSC within five years. Grower preferences for future HWSC use were primarily for either narrow-windrow burning (42%) or the HSD (29%). This very high level of current and potential HWSC adoption signifies that HWSC is now considered an established weed control practice by Australian growers.
The efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems is based on the biological attribute of high seed retention at maturity by annual weed species. For many of Australia’s dominant weeds of cropping systems, seed heads remain intact at maturity with high levels of seed production retained at a height that ensures collection during crop harvest: >75% for rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin), wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.), wild oat (Avena fatua L.), and cheat (Bromus secalinus L.) (Walsh and Powles Reference Walsh and Powles 2014). Collected weed seeds are processed, separated from the grain, and then expelled from the grain harvester, mostly in the chaff fraction, and ironically are redistributed across the crop field, entering the seedbank to become future weed problems. Thus, crop harvest presents an opportunity to exploit high weed seed retention by targeting the collected weed seeds as they pass through the harvester (combine), thereby restricting seedbank inputs. With the major portion (e.g., >95% rigid ryegrass) of collected weed seeds exiting in the chaff fraction, several HWSC systems have been developed specifically to target this material (Walsh et al. Reference Walsh, Newman and Powles 2013).
Although HWSC systems have been in use in Australian cropping for over three decades, it is only recently that their use has become widespread. The first system used in Australia in the late 1980s was chaff carts, introduced from Canada where they were used during harvest to collect chaff material for stock feed (Olfert et al. Reference Olfert, Stumborg, Craig and Schoney 1991). Australian growers recognized the potential value of this system in targeting weed seeds during harvest. However, despite their efficacy (Matthews et al. Reference Matthews, Llewellyn, Powles and Reeves 1996; Walsh and Powles Reference Walsh and Powles 2007), their adoption has remained low. In a survey of 132 Western Australian (WA) growers in 2000 (Llewellyn et al. Reference Llewellyn, Lindner, Pannell and Powles 2004), it was determined that 7% were currently using chaff carts, but that 10% had used this practice over the previous four years. Despite the slight reduction in adoption, grower recognition of the value of this system remained with 23% expected to be using chaff carts in the next four years.
In the late 1990s, more than a decade after the introduction of chaff carts, WA growers began developing alternate HWSC systems. The first of these was narrow-windrow burning, which was first used in the northern WA cropping zone in the mid-1990s (Walsh and Newman Reference Walsh and Newman 2007). The adoption of this practice was rapid, and 21% of the growers surveyed by Llewellyn et al. ( Reference Llewellyn, Lindner, Pannell and Powles 2004) were using this practice in 2000. Despite the popularity of narrow-windrow burning, additional HWSC systems continued to be developed. The bale-direct system (during-harvest baling of all harvest residues) became commercially available during the mid-2000s. Chaff tramlining (concentration of chaff material on dedicated wheel tracks) was also introduced in WA in the late 2000s, and most recently, the Harrington Seed Destructor (HSD), a cagemill-based chaff processing system, became commercially available in 2012 (Walsh et al. Reference Walsh, Harrington and Powles 2012).
As indicated by demand for new HWSC systems and information on their efficacy, it is clear that there is increasing adoption of this approach to weed control. The objective of this paper is to establish the current level of HWSC adoption, as identified in an interview survey of 600 crop producers evenly representing each of Australia’s cropping regions.
Materials and Methods
Crop Producer Survey
A grower survey of crop production practices was conducted across the 13 crop production zones of Australia designated by the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) (Table 1). As part of a larger survey (Llewellyn et al. Reference Llewellyn, Ronning, Ouzman, Walker, Mayfield and Clark 2016), specific information was collected on grower adoption and use of HWSC systems.
Table 1 The number and proportion of growers surveyed in each cropping region and zone.
A total of 602 grain growers were surveyed, beginning in March 2014, with some follow-up interviews completed in July 2014. Interviews were conducted by phone to facilitate a relatively high response rate and ensure a sound representation of grain growers. Participants were offered the chance to win one of ten $50 gift cards. Growers were randomly contacted until the quota for growers meeting the criteria in each cropping zone was met, resulting in 602 complete responses distributed across these zones (Table 1). Respondents needed to be identified as primary cropping decision makers and were screened based on their farm’s crop area having been greater than 500 ha, with the exception of the High Rainfall Victoria and Tasmanian zone, where this was later reduced to 250 ha to reflect the commonly smaller farm size in this zone. The completion rate of the survey was 44% of the total number of primary cropping decision makers directly approached for participation. The 602 grower responses represent a total arable area of 2.0 million hectares.
HWSC System Definitions and Questions on Adoption and Use of These Systems
Growers were asked about five harvest weed seed control practices described as follows:
∙ Chaff cart. A trailing cart attached to the harvester collects the chaff fraction, which is then strategically dumped to be burned, grazed, or removed.
∙ Bale-direct system. Chaff and straw collected during harvest are baled directly using a baler attached to the harvester.
∙ Narrow-windrow burning. Chaff and straw are concentrated in narrow windrows (500 to 600 mm wide) at harvest to be later burned to destroy the weed seeds.
∙ Chaff tramlining. Chaff is concentrated at harvest on dedicated tramlines used in a controlled traffic system.
∙ HSD. A trailer-mounted chaff processing system attached to the harvester that processes chaff in order to destroy weed seeds.
Q.I am now going to read you out a list of five harvest weed control systems. Can you please tell me which ones you use?
Q1a.Do you use a chaff cart for harvest weed seed control?
Q1a1.In what year did you first start using this practice?
Q1a2. On what percentage of your annual cropped area did you use this practice, as an average, over the past three seasons? (Or % that will be cropped in the coming crop season if they have not previously used this practice.)
Q1a3.Do you expect to be using this practice in five years?
Q1b.Do you use a bale-direct system for weed control purposes?
Q1b2. On what percentage of your annual cropped area did you use this practice, as an average, over the past three seasons? (Or % that will be cropped in the coming crop season if they have not previously used this practice.)
Q1b3.Do you expect to be using this practice in five years?
Q1c.Do you use narrow-windrow burning for weed control purposes? Narrow-windrow burning is placing chaff in narrow windrows at harvest and later burning them.
Q1c1. In what year did you first start using this practice?
Q1c2. On what percentage of your annual cropped area did you use this practice, as an average, over the past three seasons? (Or % that will be cropped in the coming crop season if they have not previously used this practice.)
Q1c3. Do you expect to be using this practice in five years?
Q1d.Do you use chaff tramlining for weed control? Chaff tramlining is concentrating chaff at harvest on dedicated tramlines used in a controlled traffic system.
Q1d2. On what percentage of your annual cropped area did you use this practice, as an average, over the past three seasons? (Or % that will be cropped in the coming crop season if they have not previously used this practice.)
Q1d3.Do you expect to be using this practice in five years?
Q1e.Do you use a HSD for weed control?
Q1e2. On what percentage of your annual cropped area did you use this practice, as an average over the past three seasons? (Or % that will be cropped in the coming crop season if they have not previously used this practice.)
Q1e3. Do you expect to be using this practice in five years?
Q1f.Which of the five harvest weed seed control systems I just mentioned would you most prefer to be using in five years’ time, if you had to select one: 1) chaff cart, 2) bale-direct system, 3) narrow windrow burning, 4) chaff tramlining, or 5) HSD?
Q1g.What are the main reasons you are not using this practice now?
Results and Discussion
National and Regional HWSC Adoption
As evidenced by widespread adoption, HWSC is now an accepted weed control practice for Australia’s crop producers. Our survey of producers, representing each Australian grain crop production region, (Table 1) revealed that 43% of growers are currently using HWSC to target weed seeds during crop harvest (Table 2). Narrow-windrow burning (30%) is the most commonly used HWSC technique, with much lower levels of use of other available systems: chaff tramlining (7%), chaff carts (3%), the bale-direct system (3%), and the HSD (<1%). The western region has the highest proportion (63%) of HWSC users, followed by the southern region (39%), with the northern region (19%) having lower but substantial levels of adoption. The high level of adoption in the western region is not surprising given that most of the currently available HWSC systems, narrow-windrow burning, bale-direct, chaff tramlining, and HSD, were developed by western region growers. Additionally, the higher levels of adoption across this and some of the southern cropping regions are a likely response to higher frequencies of herbicide-resistant weed populations (Boutsalis et al. Reference Boutsalis, Gill and Preston 2012; Broster et al. Reference Broster, Koetz and Wu 2013; Owen et al. Reference Owen, Martinez and Powles 2014, Reference Owen, Martinez and Powles 2015).
Table 2 Grower adoption of narrow-windrow burning, chaff tramlining, chaff carts, and the bale-direct system, and the crop area on which these harvest weed seed control systems are used on in each of Australia’s cropping zones.
a Adoption expressed as percentage of all growers in region or zone.
b Average percentage of cropping land is the proportion of cropping land receiving this practice over the last three years.
It is apparent that there has been a dramatic increase nationally in the use of HWSC systems over the last five years. The only previously published data on HWSC use by WA growers in 2000 determined that approximately 28% of survey participants were using either of the two available HWSC options at the time, chaff carts (7%) and narrow-windrow burning (21%) (Llewellyn et al. Reference Llewellyn, Lindner, Pannell and Powles 2004). There were similar results from our survey, in which 30% of western region growers reported that they first started using HWSC in 2008, using either narrow-windrow burning (21%) or chaff carts (9%). It is also estimated that in 2008 HWSC adoption in the northern and southern cropping regions was just 11% and 2%, respectively, with narrow-windrow burning accounting for all northern region HWSC use and 90% of southern region HWSC use. These adoption levels may be a slight underestimate, as they do not include the use of the other HWSC systems available at that time: bale-direct and chaff tramlining. Growers using these systems were not asked when they first started using these systems, and therefore, no historical data on the use of these systems were collected.
The most commonly used HWSC system in Australian cropping is narrow-windrow burning, with an estimated 30% of Australian crop producers now using this practice. This approach to HWSC control was developed in the WA northern zone and, not surprisingly, 75% of growers in this area are using this approach (Table 2). The western region in general has the highest frequency of adoption of this practice with 50% of growers routinely using narrow windrow burning. Adoption in the southern region is the next highest, with 28%, while only 4% of northern region crop producers use this practice.
Cumulative adoption of narrow windrow burning highlights the earlier and higher level of adoption of this practice by growers in the WA northern cropping zone. Over a period of 13 years, the frequency of this zone’s growers using this practice increased from less than 10% in 2000 to 75% in 2013 (Figure 1). The rate of adoption of narrow windrow burning across this zone consistently averaged approximately 5% annually over this period. In comparison, the initial adoption of this practice in the southern and northern regions was delayed by 4 to 12 years, respectively. However, once commenced, adoption levels have consistently increased by 5% to 6% annually in these regions as well.
Figure 1 Cumulative adoption of narrow windrow burning in each of Australia’s cropping zones.
Although the most recently developed, chaff tramlining is the second most commonly grower-adopted HWSC system. Where adopted, this system is used on a greater proportion of cropped area than other HWSC systems. The advantage of this approach over most of the other options is that residue burning is not required for weed seed control. However, unlike other HWSC systems, weed control efficacy has not yet been documented. The highest level of chaff tramlining adoption has occurred in the northern cropping region, where 13% of growers are using this technique (Table 2). Frequencies of adoption in the western and southern regions are lower at 4% and 6%, respectively. Consistent across all regions is the elevated proportion of the harvested area that chaff tramlining is used on. Where adopted, growers used this system across 77% of their cropped area, a substantially higher area of use than that for narrow-windrow burning (26%), chaff carts (61%), and the bale-direct system (25%).
Chaff carts were the initial form of HWSC introduced into Australian cropping, but despite this their adoption has been slow and remains low, with just 3% of Australian producers using this system. Although first introduced over 30 years ago, and with demonstrated high efficacy (Walsh and Powles Reference Walsh and Powles 2007), the uptake of this technology has been slow (Table 2), probably due to practical limitations with the transfer of chaff to the cart and the burning of collected residues. The highest proportion of chaff cart users are in the WA central cropping zone, with 13% of growers in this zone using this system (Table 2). With growers in this zone reporting that they first began using this system in the early 1990s, the annual uptake then is <1.0% annually. Similarly, low rates of adoption for this system are consistent throughout the cropping zones where chaff cart adoption has occurred.
Future Use of HWSC Systems
The national levels of HWSC adoption are expected to double over the next five years. When surveyed growers were asked about future use of HWSC practices, 82% expected to be using some form of this approach for weed control in the next five years (Table 3). This indicates that, nationally, HWSC adoption is expected to increase by approximately 8% annually over this period. Narrow windrow burning is expected to remain the most commonly used technique, with 46% of growers expecting to be using this system, a 16% increase over the current level of adoption. Chaff tramlining will be the next most frequently used system at 15% adoption, followed by chaff carts at 10%, HSD at 7%, and the bale-direct system at 4%.
Table 3 Harvest weed seed control systems that growers are planning to use in the next five years. Footnote a
a Percentage of growers, expressed as percentage of all growers per region or zone. Growers currently using a harvest weed seed control system are assumed to be future users.
Despite the planned use of the HSD being low, almost a third of Australian growers using HWSC would prefer to be using this system. When asked which HWSC system they would prefer to be using in five years’ time, the majority of growers chose narrow-windrow burning (42%) and HSD (29%) (Table 4). There were much lower preferences for chaff tramlining (9%), chaff cart (12%), and the bale-direct system (8%). In general, these grower preferences of HWSC systems were similar to their reported plans to use these systems (Tables 3 and 4). The exception was planned use of HSD, with only low numbers of growers planning to use this system despite this being a highly preferred option. When growers were asked to provide a reason for not adopting the HSD, the most common responses were the perceived high cost (55%) and unproven technology (24%).
Table 4 Grower preference of harvest weed seed control system if adopting this practice within the next five years. Footnote a
a Percentage of all growers per region.
The demand for alternate weed control tactics, such as HWSC, has been driven by high frequencies of herbicide resistance, but the adoption of these systems has likely been facilitated by workshops featuring grower presenters. Survey respondents were not asked to provide information on what influenced their decision to adopt HWSC. It is clear that high frequencies of herbicide resistance are a contributing factor. However, high frequencies of herbicide resistance have been present in Australian cropping systems for almost two decades, and therefore this factor alone does not explain the increased levels of adoption that have occurred recently. Specifically, from 2010 onwards there have been substantial increases in the adoption of narrow windrow burning (Figure 1). It was at this time that we began conducting HWSC workshops, featuring grower presenters, throughout Australia’s production regions. The combination of research data and growers’ personal experiences with the practical implementation of HWSC systems resonated well with audiences. In particular, it was how these innovative grower presenters had overcome the practical barriers to adoption that was crucial for many. Initial observations were that adoption was immediate and substantial in areas where these workshops were held.
High levels of HWSC adoption by Australian growers clearly signifies that this approach to weed control is now an accepted and routine weed control practice in Australian cropping systems. HWSC systems have been developed because high retention of problematic weeds at crop maturity creates the opportunity to target these weed seeds during harvest (Walsh and Powles Reference Walsh and Powles 2014). Importantly though, adoption of these systems is being driven by very high frequencies of herbicide-resistant weed populations across many of Australia’s cropping regions. The ongoing refinement and development of HWSC systems, as evidenced by the recent introduction of the integrated HSD (iHSD), will continue to drive grower interest in the use of these systems. The challenge now though is to motivate grower adoption as a pre-emptive tactic for herbicide conservation rather than a reactive response to herbicide resistance.
The authors wish to thank Australian grain growers for the contribution of the presented data. We also wish to thank the Grains Research and Development Corporation for financial support for this research.