Responsible in particular for the smell of CBD flowers, terpenes are natural compounds that we will address the purpose and benefits Wondering what terpenes are and what their role in CBD oil is? In this article, we cover the most commonly found terpenes in CBD products, explain their therapeutic properties, and their contribution to the entourage effect. CBD terpenes bring even more benefits to your CBD health strategy. Shop for best quality CBD products like Delta 8 terpenes at Haygood Farms.
What are the terpenes used for in CBD?
We’re hearing more and more about CBD oil and how it’s being used by people suffering from a variety of health issues, including anxiety, insomnia, or illnesses like multiple sclerosis or fibromyalgia.
An important component of cannabis plants, and plants in general, that promotes this therapeutic aspect are terpenes. Terpenes, elements present in cannabis but not psychoactive like CBD, offer impressive health benefits.
In the botanical field, terpenes are a defense system to prevent plants from being eaten by herbivores or damaged by high temperatures. They also attract pollinators such as bees
For humans, different terpenes have different effects and health benefits. Every plant has a unique blend of terpenes and every human will react to them differently.
In this article, we will find out what exactly terpenes are and why they are so important. Finally, we will look at the most well-known terpenes, their benefits and their use
What are terpenes?
Terpenes are volatile compounds found in plants and responsible for their aromas. We encounter terpenes every time we smell a flower or taste fresh fruit. They are all around us.
The purpose of terpenes is to protect the plant they inhabit, while giving it a unique aromatic specificity. Terpenes are one of the reasons why there is such a wide variety of cannabis plants, with different tastes and aromas. Some terpenes are very powerful and can have therapeutic functions.
There are several hundred different terpenes in the world, and more than 200 have been identified in cannabis plants. There are surely many more to be discovered. However, only a few terpenes in industrial hemp are concentrated enough to be considered significant. We will detail some of them in this article
Terpenes in CBD oil
In order to understand their usefulness in CBD oil, we must first differentiate between terpenes and terpenoids. Terpenes are the natural compounds in the flower or bud of the cannabis plant. Terpenoids, on the other hand, are terpenes that have been chemically modified. The process of drying and hardening a cannabis flower leads to the formation of terpenoids.
For example, Full Spectrum CBD oil will contain terpenes because the entire cannabis plant is used in its production. On the contrary, CBD isolate will not have any because it is pure CBD. Many of the plant’s natural components are lost during production, including other cannabinoids and terpenes. To remedy this, some manufacturers add terpenoids to supposedly enhance the effects of CBD.
Scientists have been studying the properties of terpenes for some time now and have come to an important conclusion. Hemp cannabinoids (like CBD) work more effectively in the presence of terpenes, rather than when isolated on their own.
This suggests that full spectrum CBD products would be more effective in a physiological sense. More studies need to be conducted to better understand the full spectrum of CBD and the benefits of terpenes on the body. So if you’re looking for a CBD oil that contains a range of beneficial and natural terpenes, you’ll opt for a full spectrum product
You can find high quality Full Spectrum Premium CBD on our 321 CBD French store.
The benefits of terpenes in CBD
Terpenes are very important in cannabis because not only can they tailor the experience of CBD oil users, but they can also enhance the effects of the main cannabinoids. Many users find CBD oil with terpenes more beneficial than a distillate or isolate product.
Also, each terpene has its own set of benefits. For example, oils high in linalool and myrcene, two terpenes known for their mild and relaxing properties, are effective for sleep. CBD oils with terpenes like limonene and caryophyllene can be used to help provide energy and increased levels of concentration
Terpenes therefore offer incredible therapeutic functions: anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, analgesic, antimicrobial etc. It is impossible to list all terpenes and their benefits in one article. However, we can distinguish the most well-known ones and their benefits.
The 5 terpenes to know in CBD
Myrcene terpenes are among the most common terpenes associated with hemp. They have a rich, earthy, herbal scent. Although it is the smallest terpene in cannabis, it can produce powerful relaxing effects on the body, leading to feelings of drowsiness. As for its health benefits, Myrcene has antibacterial and analgesic properties.
Another very common terpene in hemp is Linalool. It is a compound that has a floral and delicate aroma, common to many plant species (including lavender). As for the effects of terpene Linalool, some brands add it to their topical product line for its lovely scent, which is commonly used in aromatherapy. Linalool works effectively on sleep and anxiety.
The terpene Limonene is commonly found in the peels of citrus fruits, especially lemons. It is also a crucial terpene in many hemp extract products, and adds a wonderful boost in terms of the flavor and aroma profile of a CBD oil. Limonene is known to have antifungal properties. It can also improve mood, reduce inflammation and curb anxiety. Adding Limonene to CBD oil can increase the absorption rate of other terpenes.
Pinene terpenes are found in pine needles. But they are also found in several distinct strains of hemp. Pinene is also found in a number of conifers, as well as in some citrus fruits. It has a distinct aroma, and its presence is immediately recognizable in a variety of CBD products. It has been mentioned in traditional Chinese medicine for its therapeutic qualities. It can be used as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and bronchodilator.
One of the most abundant terpenes of all, Caryophyllene is found in cloves, cinnamon and black pepper, as well as in hemp. It offers a woody, spicy aroma. The most intriguing feature of this terpene is its ability to interact with the endocannabinoid system in the same way as cannabinoids. In addition, it can produce analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.
How to choose your CBD oil with terpenes?
When choosing your CBD oil, first make sure that the product has been tested by a laboratory and has a valid certificate of analysis. This will give you a better chance of knowing if it contains terpenes, and if so which ones.
The CA or CoA is a certificate of analysis that includes a phytocannabinoid profile listing the levels of CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids, as well as the terpenes in the product. It is the most important tool for determining the quality and purity of a CBD product
Overall, it’s clear that terpenes are essential not only in hemp, but also in a countless variety of plants and their essential oil extracts. Terpenes can give an extra boost to any hemp product. To check out our terpene-rich product lines, visit our French CBD store.
Terpenes in CBD: What They Are, Benefits, & Effects
CBD oil is just one of the plethora of natural products containing terpenes.
In fact, you don’t need to be familiar with cannabis to consume terpenes — they are present in virtually any plant out there, including herbs, fruits, and vegetables.
Terpenes are a scientific name to describe aromatic compounds that we all interact with within our everyday lives.
For cannabis and terpenes, abundance and diversity are the names of the game.
But did you know that terpenes are more than just about aromas and flavors? They can also interact with THC and other cannabinoids to create a phenomenon known as the entourage effect.
Most of the time, terpenes are included in a CBD extract. Sometimes, however, hemp companies separate and reintroduce them to the end product to create different ratios and make a broad-spectrum product or enhance the efficacy of CBD distillates.
Wondering why terpenes are so important for CBD oil? Why are they suddenly on everyone’s tongue?
Below you’ll find the answer.
What Are Terpenes?
There are over 500 phytochemicals in cannabis, about 140 of which are known as terpenes.
Terpenes are highly volatile, aromatic compounds found in all plants — not only cannabis. However, as we’ve mentioned earlier, cannabis is particularly abundant in these molecules.
Terpenes are responsible for how these plants smell and taste. Every time you waft a fruit, herb, or vegetable, or when walking around the garden — you come into contact with terpenes.
Several hundreds of terpenes have been identified globally, and over 100 of them have been linked to hemp plants. However, only a few terpenes occur in hemp in concentrations significant enough to be important for our health.
The main reason why people have become interested in terpenes is the extra health benefits they come with. Researchers have been investigating their therapeutic potential for decades — concluding they have much to offer regarding our physiological and emotional well-being.
As a matter of fact, aromatherapy has been used for centuries due to its holistic, natural effects.
Are Terpenes the Same as Terpenoids?
You may often hear people using the words “terpenes” and “terpenoids” interchangeably — are they right?
The short answer: no.
Terpenes and terpenoids have slightly different chemical structures. Terpenes are found in living cannabis plants in their trichomes (hormonal glands) located on the surface of their flowers. Terpenoids start to form when you dry and cure the herb. These two processes change the molecular makeup of terpenes.
Terpenoids are commonly combined with other natural ingredients to create perfumes, essential oils, and spices. Researchers suggest that terpenoids can lower, increase, or change the potency and duration of the effects induced by cannabinoids aside from giving the buds their unique fragrances and flavors.
Simply put, the effects of CBD are modulated by terpenes; otherwise, they would be bland, and its benefits weakened.
Are Terpenes Safe?
Terpenes are generally considered safe. These organic substances can have a range of positive effects on our health. For instance, they can indirectly increase dopamine levels, positively affecting our mood; terpenes are also known for their stress-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties on top of being able to enhance the therapeutic properties of cannabis.
That being said, research has yet to confirm whether these therapeutic effects of terpenes are clinically significant. Some people can also be allergic to specific terpenes. Although these compounds don’t trigger allergies themselves, they can do it upon air exposure, so if your nose gets runny after interacting with certain aromas, it may indicate allergies.
The Most Abundant Terpenes in CBD Oil
Terpenes are known for providing cannabis plants with appealing aromas. Still, at the same time, they also contribute to the entourage effect, increasing the therapeutic potential of other CBD and other cannabinoids. That’s the primary reason why most people choose full-spectrum CBD over isolates. Full-spectrum CBD comes from the whole plant, reflecting its original phytochemical profile.
Here are the most abundant terpenes in CBD oil — with their health benefits explained.
As you can guess by the name, limonene brings the fragrances of citrus fruits. It’s typically found in the zest o citruses, such as lemon, lime, and orange. Limonene has energizing, stress-relieving, and anti-fungal properties; medical researchers have also found it can act as an anti-irritant and improve cannabinoids and other terpenes .
You can find pinene in pine needles as well as in a selection of citrus fruits. In Chinese folk medicine, terpene is an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and bronchodilating agent.
Myrcene is another common terpene in cannabis. It has a pungent, earthy, and fruity fragrance. Despite being the smallest terpene, it can make it easier for cannabinoids to penetrate the brain-blood barrier — increasing their potency. It also acts as a muscle relaxant and can cause drowsiness in high doses. The scientific literature mentions myrcene as an antibacterial compound that can also reduce pain .
If your cannabis strain has a floral smell, it’s probably high in linalool. This terpene is commonly found in chamomile and lavender. Hemp companies often use it in topical creams and ointments for its soothing scent and calming effects .
You can find beta-caryophyllene in cloves, cinnamon, black pepper, and broccoli. It’s one of the most promising terpenes in terms of their therapeutic effects. It’s also known as “the dietary cannabinoid” because it can similarly interact with cannabinoid receptors to cannabinoids. This mechanism enables beta-caryophyllene to reduce pain and inflammation .
Bisabolol is a fragrant terpene that offers calming effects. It is found mainly in chamomile, but it also occurs in high concentrations in a less popular plant — The candeia tree in Brazil. This terpene is widely used in the skincare space due to its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties .
Terpineol smells similar to trees, lilacs, and lime blossoms; it is also present in many exotic fruits. This terpene is often used to infuse lotions and perfumes. Terpineol has potent anti-oxidative properties, according to scientists .
This terpene is underlined by notes of apples, roses, and citrus fruits. It commonly occurs in tea trees, lemongrass, and jasmine. Research suggests that trans-nerolidol demonstrates potent antifungal, antiparasitic, and sedative effects .
Benefits & Effects of Terpenes in CBD
Terpenes offer a wealth of health benefits on their own. However, they can also modulate the effects of cannabinoids, including CBD and THC. Humans have evolved to consume cannabinoids, and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is soundproof that. Both cannabinoids and terpenes can interact with the receptors in the ECS to help the body maintain homeostasis — biochemical balance between all systems and organs.
This unique synergy between cannabinoids and terpenes is known as “the entourage effect” or “the ensemble effect.”
How Terpenes Contribute to the Entourage Effect
The entourage effect has been studied by scientists since its introduction in 1998, when Raphael Mechoulam, the father of cannabis research, discovered that whole-plant extracts could produce more pronounced therapeutic effects than every compound from these extracts used in isolation.
This concept was further elaborated on by Dr. Ethan Bud Russo, a neuroscientist, and cannabis expert, in his work “Taming THC: Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-Terpenoid Interactions.”
The entourage effect assumes a unique relationship between cannabis, terpenes, and flavonoids in cannabis. When the said molecules are consumed in the form of dried flowers or as an oily extract, they enhance the efficacy of CBD and THC while mitigating potentially unwanted reactions.
The entourage effect isn’t unique to terpenes. For example, CBD is known to counteract the psychotropic potential of THC, which may prove useful for people who are sensitive to high doses of the latter. CBD can be used to balance the intoxication from THC, resulting in a more clear-headed sensation.
THC, in turn, can amplify the anti-inflammatory and relaxing effects of CBD when introduced even in small doses.
Simply put, whole buds and full-spectrum extracts are believed to work better than their broad-spectrum or isolate-based counterparts.
Another interesting study on this phenomenon found that cannabis strains with equal or higher ratios of CBD to THC can improve the plant’s therapeutic potential up to 4 times as much as THC alone .
The study’s authors concluded that taking twice the amount of a THC isolate had no impact on its therapeutic effects except that the high was dull and more trippy — triggering anxiety and paranoia more often than even the high-THC strains.
How to Use CBD Terpenes
Terpenes aren’t as appealing on their own due to their low potency. However, they can make a significant difference when added to a CBD product. They are usually infused into CBD oils to provide it with desired fragrances aside from modulating the effects of CBD and other cannabinoids.
Manufacturers add terpenes using a process known as fractional distillation. Here’s how they do it with CBD oils and vape pens.
Add Terpenes into CBD Oil
After CO2 extraction, the hemp extract contains all naturally occurring compounds in hemp. The product can be left unfiltered and sold as “raw CBD oil” or undergo fractional distillation. True to its name, this process isolates individual compounds and places them in different chambers to be reintroduced to the final product.
There are two reasons why hemp manufacturers go for fractional distillation. First, it helps them keep the amount of THC below the legal 0.3% threshold; the manufacturer can precisely infuse the amount of THC they’re looking for. Second, this process helps capture the more fragile terpenes that would otherwise degrade during decarboxylation and filtration. Once these steps have been taken care of, the manufacturer can reintroduce terpenes to the final formula.
CBD Vapes with Terpenes
Adding terpenes to CBD vapes is easier than doing the same with CBD oil; you can actually infuse your CBD vape liquid with terpenes at home. Just make sure that you have a high-quality CBD liquid, thinning agents such as vegetable glycerin and propylene glycol, and your favorite terpenes.
Experts say it’s best to use a 1% terpene solution to achieve the desired flavors and sweetness. The carriers should make the maximum of your solution; the second place is CBD, and then you can start adding terpenes.
Final Thoughts On Terpenes And Their Role in CBD Products
Researchers and phytopharmacologists interested in the health benefits of cannabis have been investigating the influence of terpenes on cannabis extracts for decades.
Terpenes are more than just aromatic molecules. In fact, they can considerably affect the therapeutic profile of your CBD oil. There’s still a lot to discover when it comes to the relationship between cannabinoids and terpenes. Still, these compounds are necessary if you want to experience the full benefits of cannabis.
That’s why you won’t find single-molecule herbs. They’re always accompanied by supportive ingredients like terpenes.
Which terpenes do you like the most in CBD oil? Do you prefer citrusy notes, or are you into floral and earthy hints?
- Sun, Jidong. “D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications.” Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutics vol. 12,3 (2007): 259-64.
- Salehi, Bahare et al. “Therapeutic Potential of α- and β-Pinene: A Miracle Gift of Nature.” Biomolecules vol. 9,11 738. 14 Nov. 2019, doi:10.3390/biom9110738 (1)
- Jansen, C et al. “Myrcene and terpene regulation of TRPV1.” Channels (Austin, Tex.) vol. 13,1 (2019): 344-366. doi:10.1080/19336950.2019.1654347 (2)
- Buchbauer, G et al. “Aromatherapy: evidence for sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation.” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences vol. 46,11-12 (1991): 1067-72. doi:10.1515/znc-1991-11-1223
- Gertsch, Jürg et al. “Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 105,26 (2008): 9099-104. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803601105
- Maurya, Anil K et al. “α-(-)-bisabolol reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ameliorates skin inflammation.” Current pharmaceutical biotechnology vol. 15,2 (2014): 173-81. doi:10.2174/1389201015666140528152946
- Zengin, Hatice, and Ayse H Baysal. “Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oil terpenes against pathogenic and spoilage-forming bacteria and cell structure-activity relationships evaluated by SEM microscopy.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 19,11 17773-98. 3 Nov. 2014, doi:10.3390/molecules191117773 (3)
- Silva, Marcos P N et al. “Antischistosomal activity of the terpene nerolidol.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 19,3 3793-803. 24 Mar. 2014, doi:10.3390/molecules19033793
- Russo E. B. (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British journal of pharmacology , 163 (7), 1344–1364. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x (4)
- Boggs, D. L., Nguyen, J. D., Morgenson, D., Taffe, M. A., & Ranganathan, M. (2018). Clinical and Preclinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology , 43 (1), 142–154. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2017.209 (5)
Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.
Getting to Know the Many Benefits of CBD Terpenes
CBD terpenes are a powerful component of CBD and Delta 8 and as such offer deep therapeutic health benefits. Terpenes are found in all plants, not just cannabis and hemp. The terpenes create the aromas in flowers and flavors in edible fruits. While terpenes can be found everywhere in the plant world, CBD terpenes and their many benefits are of interest for these purposes.
Understanding the terminology –
Starting at the beginning, let’s drill down on the terpene terminology. Terpenes and terpenoids are common terms that CBD terpenes explorers hear frequently. Here’s the scoop:
- Terpenes = Natural compounds found in the flower or bud of the cannabis or hemp plant.
- Terpenoids = Chemically created through a process of drying and hardening cannabis flowers.
- Where to find them – Full Spectrum CBD oil will contain CBD terpenes naturally. CBD isolate will not have any because it is pure CBD. Many of the plant’s natural components are lost during production, including other cannabinoids and terpenes.
An overview of CBD terpenes –
Terpenes serve an important purpose. They protect the plants they inhabit and provide them with their unique scents. CBD terpenes are one of the main reasons behind the many varietals of cannabis plants. In addition to creating the many tastes and aromas, CBD terpenes offer a range of powerful and therapeutic functions.
There are five main terpenes to be familiar with:
- Myrcene – The most common CBD terpene found in the hemp plant, Myrcene offers an earthy, herbal scent. Myrcene can bring about relaxation of the body that can help with insomnia.
- Linalool – Linalool is a common terpene found in the hemp plant. This terpene brings a delicate floral aroma similar to lavender that works effectively on sleep and anxiety.
- Limonene – Limonene is the terpene that brings a wonderful boost in terms of the flavor and aroma profile of a CBD oil. Limonene has antifungal properties and may improve mood, reduce inflammation and curb anxiety.
- Pinene – Pinene terpenes are found in pine needles as well as several strains of hemp. The presence of Pinene is immediately recognizable in a variety of CBD products and can be anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and bronchodilator.
- Caryophyllene – Caryophyllene is one of the most common terpenes with a woody, spicy scent. This terpene, found in the hemp plant, interacts with the endocannabinoid system and can produce analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.
How to choose your CBD oil with terpenes –
Before adding anything to your wellness regimen, it’s important to assess the quality. It’s important to know the source and quality of your CBD oil. Haygood Farms , founded in 2017, produces high-quality organic industrial hemp. Haygood Farms also makes it easy for you to perform your due diligence with visibility into their processes and ingredients always available for review.
The benefits of CBD terpenes –
The research indicates that hemp cannabinoids (like CBD) work more effectively when CBD terpenes are present, rather than when isolated. CBD terpenes can be effective with symptoms of depression, anxiety and cognitive function. Specific terpenes offer specific benefits, such as:
- Caryophyllene and beta-caryophyllene can help with neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and stress.
- Alpha and Beta-Pinene offer antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.
- Limonene can help with mood, heartburn and pain.
CBD terpenes in Delta 8 –
CBD terpenes are integrated into Haygood Farm’s new artisan Delta 8 cartridges . With flavor choices such as tangie, super sour, wedding cake, frosted lime, bubba kush, granddaddy headband, blue dream, runtz and strawberry cough, there are options for everyone to consider. Haygood Farms Delta 8 cartridges are third-party tested and made with our 100% hemp derived delta 8 distillate and added terpenes. You can expect only the highest quality, aromatic terpenes in your Haygood Farms’ Delta 8 cartridges.