Board certified female plastic surgeon Dr. Emily Kirby answers the top CBD skincare questions she gets from her Fort Worth patients. As CBD oil-laced products continue to take over, we consulted three dermatologists to get the scoop on the benefits of CBD oil for acne. See inside. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Acne Acne is the most common skin condition in the United States and affects approximately 85% of people ages 12–24. As a multifactorial
Can CBD Improve Acne? A Plastic Surgeon Weighs In.
If you are tuned into the beauty and health world, chances are you have heard of CBD. This compound has recently gained popularity as a wonder drug, touted for its ability to improve everything from epilepsy and insomnia to mental health disorders and even skin conditions, like acne. While CBD oil does appear to offer promising benefits to some acne sufferers, I feel it is important as a physician to take a research-based approach to verifying this claim.
What is CBD?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the non-psychoactive portion of the cannabis sativa plant, which produces both marijuana and hemp. Unlike the psychoactive compound tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD does not produce an altered mental state in its users. CBD is available in many forms, including tinctures, salves, edibles, smokeable flower, and, now, skincare products.
Hemp seed oil vs. hemp oil
When looking for CBD skincare products, you will likely see some that contain hemp oil and others that list hemp seed oil. While both of these oils may provide benefits, there are some important differences to keep in mind:
- Hemp seed oil is harvested by cold-pressing hemp seeds. It is rich in vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids, making it a popular skincare product and dietary supplement. However, hemp seed oil does not contain CBD or THC.
- Hemp oil, also referred to as CBD oil, is extracted from the whole cannabis sativa plant (not just its seeds), and therefore contains more plant compounds, including CBD.
Can CBD treat acne?
One of CBD’s most noted benefits is its ability to reduce inflammation, as supported by a 2017 review published in the Pharmacology & Therapeutics journal. Typically it is sold in a topical salve to relieve sore muscles and arthritic joints, but the same anti-inflammatory effects may be applied to improving acne.
A 2014 study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation found that CBD was effective at reducing sebum production in humans. Sebum is an oily, waxy substance produced by skin’s sebaceous glands that can lead to acne when it is overproduced. The study’s researchers also found CBD to have “remarkable” antibacterial activity, which is key to fighting acne.
These benefits, combined with CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties, may make it a powerful ingredient in alleviating acne. However, it is important to remember that significantly more research still needs to be conducted to determine precisely what effect CBD has on acne and what side effects may occur.
It is difficult to know which of CBD’s compounds will benefit your skin and which could worsen the very conditions you wish to improve.
Broad spectrum vs. full spectrum CBD
To add another piece to the CBD puzzle, CBD products are either labelled “broad spectrum” or “full spectrum.” Full-spectrum CBD oil contains a trace amount of THC (less than 0.3%), while broad spectrum CBD has no THC at all. These products each contain different plant compounds and extracts, which all affect the skin differently.
Since research into CBD is still in its early stages, it is difficult to know which plant compounds will benefit your skin and which could worsen the very conditions you wish to improve. For example, while one cannabinoid might be good for inflammation, another might increase oil production. Due to this ambiguity, I advise sticking to medical-grade, physician-prescribed skincare products that have a proven track record, which I discuss below.
Is CBD legal in Texas?
In summer of 2019, Governor Greg Abbot signed a bill making hemp products legal in Texas. Since hemp contains CBD, this law legalized CBD products.
What is the legal limit for THC in CBD products?
By definition, hemp contains 0.3% or less of THC, which is the legal THC limit for CBD products in Texas. However, just because CBD is legal does not mean it is safe.
Is CBD safe?
Many people consider CBD to be generally safe, but there are a few reasons to be wary of the product:
- CBD is unregulated. None of CBD’s medical or health claims are recognized by the Food and Drug Administration. (Only one CBD product has been approved by the FDA—a prescription drug used to treat seizures.) The CBD industry has been referred to as the “Wild West” of herbal supplementation because it is so new and unregulated, with laws trying to keep pace with product marketing.
- CBD may contain THC. Although CBD is often advertised as having no THC, some brands have tested positive for the psychoactive compound in studies.
- CBD can interact with other medications. From antidepressants to herbal supplements, CBD may affect other drugs you are currently taking.
If you choose to purchase CBD, make sure it has been tested by a reputable third party and publishes its THC content on its label. Also, avoid products that say they “cure” or “treat” any health concerns, as CBD products are not legally allowed to make these claims.
The CBD industry has been referred to as the ‘Wild West’ of herbal supplementation because it is so new and unregulated.
Medical-grade skincare products are proven to help acne
Because research on CBD is so limited, I recommend choosing skincare products with ingredients known to be safe and effective at treating acne, such as those found in medical-grade skincare products. Medical-grade products are thoroughly tested and contain active ingredients that are far more potent than those found in over-the-counter alternatives, yet are still gentle enough to nourish irritated skin.
Medical-grade acne treatment in Fort Worth, Texas
At Kalos Medical Spa, we offer premium medical-grade skincare products, including brands like SkinCeuticals®, Babor®, NeoCutis®, and iS Clinical®. These products contain medical-grade, physician-recommended ingredients, like hyaluronic acid, vitamin C, and peptides, proven to nourish and protect sensitive skin. Whether you would like to soothe irritated skin, reduce inflammation, or hydrate dull skin, our professional staff can help you find just the right skincare products to meet your needs. Contact my office online or call (817) 292-4200 to schedule your personal skincare consultation.
CBD Oil For Acne: Everything You Need to Know
Bryan is a contributing writer for Byrdie covering all things beauty and grooming. He has over 16 years of experience in beauty editorial and has been with Byrdie since 2020.
Rachel is a board-certified dermatologist and Assistant Clinical Professor at Mount Sinai Hospital Department of Dermatology. She has contributed to Byrdie, as well as Harpers Bazaar, Marie Claire, Allure, Vogue, and the New York Times, and more
Madeline has been with Byrdie and Brides since 2021. Most recently, she lead social media at Glamour magazine where she covered pop culture, beauty, and fashion.
Liz DeSousa for Byrdie
In This Article
CBD oil is seeping into virtually every beauty product category nowadays—even in deodorant and toothpaste. With its anti-stress, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory claims, it’s no wonder this so-called “wonder ingredient” is pushing its way into our self-care routines. Even more, according to the latest studies, CBD oil may be exactly what your breakout-prone, irritated skin needs to get back into shape.
Although there’s still a great deal of required research ahead to determine how best to use CBD to treat acne, we talked to a panel of experts, including cosmetic chemist Ron Robinson of BeautyStat, Michele Green, board-certified dermatologist, Kenneth Howe of Wexler Dermatology, and Rachel Nazarian of the Schweiger Dermatology Group to get the facts as well as the potential of using CBD oil for acne.
Keep reading to determine if CBD’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and oil-regulating properties actually work wonders for acne.
Meet the Expert
- Ron Robinson is a cosmetic chemist at BeautyStat. is a board-certified dermatologist based in Manhattan.
- Kenneth Howe is a board-certified dermatologist at Wexler Dermatology.
- Rachel Nazarian is a New York City-based dermatologist at Schweiger Dermatology Group.
Type of Ingredient: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sebum-regulating.
Main Benefits: Reduces inflammation, healing and calming, regulates oil production, neutralizes free radicals.
Who Should Use It: It is recommended for those looking to treat mild to moderate inflammatory acne lesions at home. It’s also great for sensitive or those allergic to typical anti-acne ingredients, such as benzoyl peroxide or retinol.
How Often Can You Use It: Products containing CBD oil can be used twice per day as part of your usual anti-acne skincare routine.
Works Well With: Ingredients designed to calm skin and decrease inflammation, including arnica, hyaluronic acid and ceramides.
Don’t Use With: Ingredients that can counteract the anti-inflammatory benefits of CBD, such as alcohol. Also, be aware that CBD is still an unregulated ingredient, and ongoing research is still exploring CBD’s pathways and other ingredients it may or may not work well with.
What is CBD Oil?
CBD—which stands for Cannabidiol—oil is a compound derived from both hemp (cannabis sativa) and marijuana (cannabis sativa indica) plants, both of which are part of the cannabis family. When it comes to acne’s root causes—a combination of bacteria, oil, and dry skin cells getting trapped in your pores—CBD oil seems to have all bases covered. “CBD oil is beneficial to these conditions due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It reduces sebum production and is also antimicrobial, so it works great for acne-prone skin,” says Green. She also cited a 2007 study published in the Journal of Dermatological Science that showed CBD oil applied to the skin may inhibit the overproduction of keratinocytes (skin cells), thus eliminating yet another acne-causing culprit.
Benefits of CBD Oil for Acne
- Reduces inflammation: CBD oil helps soothe irritation caused by acne, noticeably reducing overall redness and making breakouts appear smaller and less painful. This is especially helpful for acne-prone skin sensitivity, as CBD oil works without the dryness, redness, or irritation of conventional ingredients.
- Controls oil production: “The most exciting finding of CBD oil is that it’s ‘sebostatic’—it cuts down on oil production in the skin,” says Howe. “Current evidence suggests the skin has its own endocannabinoid system, which is to say cannabinoids are active in the skin, binding to their receptors, and signaling for certain activities to occur or not occur.” How does that relate to oil production? Green explained that “the increase in sebum production is a result of endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and 2AG) which are produced in the sebaceous glands. These endogenous cannabinoids act on CB2 receptors inhibiting the lipogenic action, therefore regulating sebum production.”
- It’s an antioxidant: CBD oil is packed with potent antioxidants that help protect skin from free radicals resulting from environmental damage and improve texture and tone over time. While none of the dermatologists could vouch for CBD oil’s ability to fade post-acne marks, it could provide an extra measure of antioxidant protection into your anti-acne routine.
- Acne multi-tasker: Rather than act as a spot treatment, acne-targeting products containing CBD oil may help manage the overall issues that contribute to acne formation. Nazarian says, “Because it works as both an anti-inflammatory and can decrease oil production, it has the ability to multitask as an acne product. It may be considered a gentler option and a safe option for many different skin types.”
Other Skin Benefits
One thing worth pointing out about incorporating CBD oil into your skincare routine is how kind it is to skin. “It’s gentle, and that’s what makes it stand out from other options,” said Nazarian. “Additionally, there are many skin types that are either too sensitive to use ingredients such as benzoyl peroxide or retinol on, or they have allergies to these ingredients. Having an additional tool in the ‘acne toolkit’ will always be useful in the fight for healthy skin.”
Side Effects of CBD Oil
Though rare, the known side effects of using CBD oil for acne include dry mouth, diarrhea, reduced appetite, drowsiness, and fatigue. CBD oil is also known to interact with certain medications such as blood thinners. While there are no known interactions with other topical products, you should start with a patch test if you’re concerned about a reaction. If you experience irritation, it’s a pretty safe bet that you’re sensitive to CBD oil, and you should stop using it.
How to Use It
When it comes to actually using CBD oil to treat acne, you may find yourself wondering: supplement or product? Nazarian says, “The evidence supporting use of CBD in treating acne is purely topical at this point. Use of CBD was tested topically on skin cells and has shown promise. Oral supplementation or smoking of CBD formulations has not been evaluated in this manner and can not be recommended.”
The good news is, there’s no shortage of CBD-laced products. One of the most popular routes is face oil. Oils are still having their moment in skincare, as they’re ideal for virtually every skin type (depending on the formulation) and act as an excellent carrier for a variety of potent compounds—like CBD. Oils are also easy to incorporate into a multiple-step skincare regimen, so if you’re looking to up your anti-acne game with an extra product that has very little likelihood to interact with your existing products, a face oil containing CBD oil might be the perfect fit. There are also various cleansers, creams, lotions, and oils for the face and body, but it’s important to steer clear of any that might contain potential comedogenic ingredients.
While the doctors we spoke to were happy to recommend products, they were also quick to remind us that CBD is still an unregulated ingredient, making it difficult to gauge a product’s efficacy. There’s no way to specify the purity or optimal percentage of active ingredients required for the product to be effective.
The Best Products with CBD Oil for Acne
“This product packs a 100mg hemp oil lightweight formulation which also contains adaptogens” (plant-based roots and herbs that help calm our body’s reaction to stress), says Green.
This anti-blemish cream combines 200mg of CBD hemp extract with 1% salicylic acid to calm and soothe active breakouts and clear up blemishes, blackheads, and whiteheads while keeping skin smooth and hydrated.
These concentrated patches will help you forget everything you knew about spot treatments that dry zits into painful oblivion. It is packed with the ideal ratio of salicylic acid and hemp to reduce inflammation and speed healing, while hydrocolloid action stops the infection in its tracks.
Each scoop of these luxe bath salts contains approximately 20mg of CBD oil and a host of other de-stressing and body-boosting ingredients, including pink Himalayan salt, arnica, Epsom salts, and calendula. Plus, they get two thumbs up from Nazarian, who praises their ability to decrease inflammation and encourage relaxation. Great for a bacne-busting soak—make sure the water isn’t too hot.
When cleansing broken-out skin, it’s important to be thorough while still respecting the skin’s moisture barrier. While this refreshing gel cleanser doesn’t contain actual CBD oil, it’s stacked with Cannabis Sativa seed and green oregano oils.
The skin around the eye area is the thinnest and most delicate on the face, so while an eye cream isn’t exactly first on the list of anti-acne products, one containing CBD could tick off two essential boxes of your skincare regimen: eye care and soothing anti-acne action.
Rather than applied topically, a few drops of this ultra-pure, ultra-potent CBD oil taken each day orally may help balance out the stress levels and reduce inflammation.
CBD oil is an antioxidant that reduces inflammation, controls oil production, and manages the overall issues that contribute to acne formation.
Yes, it’s especially beneficial for acne-prone skin. “It’s gentle, and that’s what makes it stand out from other options,” said Nazarian. “Additionally, there are many skin types that are either too sensitive to use ingredients such as benzoyl peroxide or retinol on, or they have allergies to these ingredients. Having an additional tool in the ‘acne toolkit’ will always be useful in the fight for healthy skin.”
Nazarian says, “The evidence supporting use of CBD in treating acne is purely topical at this point. Use of CBD was tested topically on skin cells and has shown promise. Oral supplementation or smoking of CBD formulations has not been evaluated in this manner and can not be recommended.”
Byrdie takes every opportunity to use high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial guidelines to learn more about how we keep our content accurate, reliable and trustworthy.
Burstein S. Cannabidiol (Cbd) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015;23(7):1377-1385.
Oláh A, Markovics A, Szabó-Papp J, et al. Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment. Exp Dermatol. 2016;25(9):701-707.
Baswan SM, Klosner AE, Glynn K, et al. Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (Cbd) for skin health and disorders. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2020;13:927-942.
Wilkinson JD, Williamson EM. Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. Journal of Dermatological Science. 2007;45(2):87-92.
Palmieri B, Laurino C, Vadalà M. A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. Clin Ter. 2019;170(2):e93-e99.
Atalay S, Jarocka-Karpowicz I, Skrzydlewska E. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of cannabidiol. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019;9(1):E21.
Huestis MA, Solimini R, Pichini S, Pacifici R, Carlier J, Busardò FP. Cannabidiol adverse effects and toxicity. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2019;17(10):974-989.
Casiraghi A, Musazzi UM, Centin G, Franzè S, Minghetti P. Topical administration of cannabidiol: influence of vehicle-related aspects on skin permeation process. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2020;13(11):E337.
Lu J, Cong T, Wen X, et al. Salicylic acid treats acne vulgaris by suppressing AMPK/SREBP1 pathway in sebocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2019;28(7):786-794.
Crippa JA, Guimarães FS, Campos AC, Zuardi AW. Translational investigation of the therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (Cbd): toward a new age. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2009.
The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Acne
Acne is the most common skin condition in the United States and affects approximately 85% of people ages 12–24. As a multifactorial disease, the pathogenesis of acne involves overproduction of sebum, irregular shedding of the cutaneous cells, accretion of Cutibacterium acnes at the pilosebaceous unit, and inflammation. To date, conventional therapies for acne include topical retinoids, over-the-counter bactericidal agents, and systematic treatments, such as oral antibiotics and isotretinoin. However, the potential for significant side effects and risk of antibiotic resistance remain limitations in these therapies, in turn reducing patient compliance and adherence to acne treatment regimens. Therefore, the use of natural plant-derived treatments or phytotherapeutics as an alternative or adjuvant to conventional treatments is attractive to patients due to their safety and minimal risk for side effects. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid of the Cannabis sativa (hemp) plant. The therapeutic use of CBD has been implicated in many diseases with an inflammatory aspect, including cancers, neurodegeneration, immunological disorders, and dermatological diseases. However, the use of CBD for acne treatment remains a novel window of opportunity. Herein, we summarize the available and relevant data, highlighting the potential use of CBD in acne for its anti-inflammatory properties. To that extent, CBD and other cannabis constituents such as cannabis seeds were found to reduce inflammation and expression of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β when evaluated in acne-like conditions. Treatment with these cannabis extracts was also found to be safe and well tolerated, further strengthening the prospect of CBD as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic for acne.
As the 8th most prevalent disease, Acne vulgaris (acne) affects an estimated 9.4% of the world’s population. 1 In the United States alone, acne is estimated to affect at least 40 million individuals and is the most common skin disorder. 2 , 3 Although most common in adolescents, acne may begin in younger children and persist through adulthood as well. 2 Unfortunately, this widespread disease is associated with discomfort, scarring of the skin, as well as emotional and psychological distresses. 1 Furthermore, by affecting 85% of adolescents, acne is often associated with significant psychosocial effects including, negative self-perception and self-esteem in addition to decreased social interactions and overall quality of life. 4 Despite this, treatment options and treatment compliance remain barriers. 5 , 6
Acne is a multifactorial disease; therefore, the onset and progression of the disease can be triggered by an interplay of many factors including stress, and hormonal and nutritional alterations. 7 , 8 Pathologically, acne is an inflammatory disease affecting the pilosebaceous units. The pilosebaceous unit consists of the hair follicle and shaft, and sebaceous gland; these sebaceous pores are found on the face, chest, and back. 9 , 10 Excess sebum production (hyperseborrhea), abnormal shedding of the cutaneous cells (hyperkeratinization), accumulation of Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) at the pilosebaceous unit, and inflammation are elemental to the disruption of sebaceous gland activity and pathogenesis of acne ( Figure 1 ). 7 , 10 , 11 Androgen hormones, particularly testosterone, stimulate sebum production and are linked to the formation of comedones. 12 Comedones are formed when the pilosebaceous units become plugged with sebum and can be classified as open comedones (blackheads) or closed comedones (whiteheads). Follicular hyperkeratinization occurs when cutaneous cells that line the sebaceous follicle, primarily keratinocytes, do not become cohesive with one another, resulting in rapid shedding of these cells, and subsequent microcomedone formation. 13 Colonization of C. acnes at the sebaceous follicle may also lead to comedogenesis and subsequent presentation of acne. C. acnes, formerly termed Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), is a gram-positive anaerobic commensal bacteria found as part of the skin’s microbiota in all individuals to maintain skin homeostasis. 7 , 14 However, colonization of C. acnes at the pilosebaceous units, particularly in areas densely packed with sebaceous follicles that harbor a lipid-rich environment, is a pathological hallmark of acne. 12 While C. acnes is present cutaneously in all individuals, the onset of acne is dependent on individual immunological responses to the bacteria, triggering the formation of comedones and the release of inflammatory mediators. 12 Detection of C. acnes initiates an inflammatory response by the immune system, triggering the release of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes and neutrophils, and their subsequent release of inflammatory chemicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). 15 Consequently, these inflammatory mediators contribute to the inflammation and the subsequent chemical insult to the follicle epithelium and proximate dermis. 12 , 16
Acne pathogenesis. Interplay of increased sebum production, accumulation of C. acnes, hyperkeratinization, and inflammation resulting in the formation of comedones. Created with BioRender.com.
Current Treatments for Acne
The management of acne involves topical and systematic treatments ( Table 1 ). Topical retinoids such as tretinoin and erythromycin are commonly prescribed as comedolytic agents and for their anti-inflammatory properties. 10 Topical over-the-counter formulations containing salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide are also used as bactericidal agents to treat mild-to-moderate acne. 3 Systematic treatment of acne primarily includes tetracycline family antibiotics, such as minocycline and doxycycline. 17 These oral antibiotics are commonly prescribed for moderate-to-severe acne. In patients with very severe acne in which antibiotics are no longer effective, oral Isotretinoin is often prescribed to control the presence of C. acnes, and to reduce sebum production and inflammation. 10 , 18 Additionally, oral contraceptives, such as those with low-dose estrogen, may also be prescribed for persistent acne for anti-androgenic effects. 10
Nonetheless, there are significant limitations to these conventional treatments, leading to low patient adherence and compliance. 5 , 19 For example, topical retinoids may irritate the skin, with side effects including burning, drying, itching, and redness. 5 , 19 These effects may lead to early termination of the treatment by the patient. Furthermore, long-term use of topical and oral antibiotics may lead to bacterial and antimicrobial antibiotic resistance. 5 , 6 Although generally regarded as safe, Isotretinoin is also known to exhibit embryotoxic and teratogenic properties. 5 , 19 These potential adverse side effects may deter patients from commencing or continuing their acne treatment, therefore highlighting the need for new, natural, and safe therapies. As many plant derivatives have already been widely investigated for their innate anti-inflammatory properties for the treatment of acne, herein, we draw attention to Cannabidiol as a potential anti-inflammatory phytotherapeutic for acne.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive biochemical constituent of the Cannabis sativa (hemp) plant. In recent years, the investigation and use of CBD for its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects has become extensive amongst the scientific community. 20 The therapeutic potential of CBD has been extensively supported in various immunological, neurodegenerative, cancer, cardiovascular, and dermatological diseases, as conditions with an inflammatory component. 21 To date, Epidiolex remains the first and sole FDA-approved prescription CBD drug used to treat seizures. Mechanistically, CBD decreases inflammation and subsequent cytokine production through modulation of the immune system and suppression of immune responses. 22 We have previously reviewed the anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive effects of CBD through modulation of critical signaling pathways and receptors. 23 As CBD does not have a high affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, the pharmacological activity of CBD is suggested to be independent of these receptors. Instead, CBD has been studied to modulate pro-inflammatory transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel (TRPV1), such that treatment with TRPV1 antagonists reversed the anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive effects of CBD ( Figure 2 ). 23–25 CBD also modulates the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway, a fundamental regulator of immune responses, by inhibiting cytokines that facilitate the activation of the cascade ( Figure 2 ). 23 , 26 , 27 Since constitutive activation of JAK/STAT has been implicated in the pathogenesis of immunological diseases and cancers, CBD-induced reduction of pro-inflammatory signaling is desirable. 27 , 28 To that extent, CBD has been shown to suppress inflammatory cytokine initiators of JAK/STAT, such as TNF-α, Interferon-γ (IFN- γ), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, and IL-6 in vitro and in vivo. 23 , 26 , 28 CBD has been shown to prevent nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLR) inflammasome complex activation, suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18 that are critical in regulating NF-κB, MAPK, and IFN pro-inflammatory pathways ( Figure 2 ). 23 , 29 , 30 Furthermore, CBD has also been studied to modulate adenosine signaling by inhibiting rapid cellular uptake of adenosine by the equilibrative nucleoside transporter ( Figure 2 ) (ENT). 31–33 Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that exhibits protective effects and attenuates inflammation by activating G protein-coupled adenosine receptor, A2A. 23 , 33 , 34 By inhibiting intracellular adenosine uptake, CBD promotes endogenous adenosine signaling as a protective mechanism during inflammatory and immune response. 23 , 35 Taken together, a mechanistic understanding of the pharmacological reduction of inflammation by CBD further supports therapeutic exploration of CBD as a novel and unique anti-inflammatory option. Next, we specifically highlight the potential use of CBD for acne treatment. 23
Molecular and signaling pathway targets of CBD. The underlying anti-inflammatory properties of CBD may be attributed to agonism of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), inhibition of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription .
CBD and Acne
In a study evaluating the effects of CBD on human sebaceous glands, CBD was evaluated in the context of immortalized human sebocytes under “acne-like” conditions. 20 In this study, CBD was shown to dose-dependently inhibit excessive lipid synthesis (lipogenesis) in sebocyte cultures that were pre-treated with “pro-acne” inducing inflammatory compounds such as arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and testosterone. 20 The anti-inflammatory effects of CBD were also observed in the reduction of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Lipopolysaccharides 36 were used to pre-treat sebocytes to induce “pro-acne” inflammatory conditions. Subsequently, TNF-α concentrations in sebocytes were measured after 24 h with or without CBD (10 μM). 20 Treatment with CBD was found to decrease TNF-α mRNA expression and the expression of other inflammatory cytokines including, IL-1β and IL-6 in the sebocytes. 20 Results from this study strongly demonstrate the clinical potential of CBD in the treatment of acne. 20 In a separate study, the potential anti-acne effects of another cannabis plant derivative, hemp seed hexane extracts (HSHE), were evaluated in an in vitro model of acne. 37 Like CBD, hemp seed extracts also do not exhibit psychotropic properties and are suggested to have potential anti-inflammatory effects. In a human keratinocyte cell line, 0.6% was HSHE reduced C. acnes-induced inflammation in human keratinocytes through down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-8. 37 Additionally, 0.6% HSHE was found to significantly inhibit overproduction of inflammatory radical nitric oxide in the same cells, further supporting the conventional development of hemp-derived constituents, such as HSHE as natural, safe, and effective anti-inflammatory acne treatments. 37 In a human study evaluating the safety and efficacy of cannabis seed extracts for acne, 3% cannabis seed extracts were found to reduce inflammation-induced redness of the skin, known as erythema. 38 Changes in skin erythema were measured every 2 weeks for a total of 12 weeks. Treatment with the 3% cannabis seeds extract cream was found to significantly reduce skin erythema after each 2-week observation, and a notable gradual reduction in erythema was observed across the 12-week study. 38 Furthermore, the application of 3% cannabis seeds extract cream on the cheeks, twice a day, for 12 weeks was found to be safe, well tolerated, non-allergenic, and non-irritating in the patient volunteers. 38
Acne is the most prevalent condition in the US, affecting nearly 50 million people. 2 , 3 As a widespread disease that affects most people at some point in their lifetime, the effects of acne include significant irritation and scarring of the skin, in addition to emotional and psychosocial distress. Furthermore, treatment options and compliance remain challenges due to the potential adverse side effects of conventional treatments and the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance, suggesting the need for new, natural, and safe acne therapies. As CBD possesses anti-inflammatory activities, CBD has been widely studied in various inflammatory and immunological disorders, including Alzheimer’s diseases, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, setting a precedent for investigation of CBD in other inflammatory conditions, such as acne. Understanding of the pharmacodynamics of CBD reveals modulation of critical inflammatory and immunological pathways and receptors leading to a decrease in inflammation and subsequent cytokine production, further supporting the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD. Evaluation of CBD in acne-like conditions revealed suppressed expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL- 6. CBD also reduced excessive lipid synthesis.
Like CBD, hemp seed extracts are also derived from cannabis, and while they are suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties, they do not exhibit psychoactive effects. Nevertheless, hemp seed extracts have also been shown to reduce C. acnes-induced inflammation and inflammatory cytokine production of IL-1β and IL-8. Additionally, these hemp seed extracts also significantly protect cells from overproduction of inflammatory radicals and nitric oxides, further supporting the use of hemp-derived constituents as potential natural, safe, and effective anti-inflammatory therapies. Moreover, in a small patient study, treatment with another cannabis derivative, cannabis seed extract cream, was found to be efficacious in reducing skin inflammation, as well as safe and non-irritating. Accordingly, the use of CBD for reducing inflammation in acne is supported and should be further explored. Since the pathogenesis of acne is complex and multifactorial, limitations include the lack of reliable animal models to mimic acne conditions and test therapeutics. 39 Additionally, there is an evident need for large-scale human studies to understand the impact of CBD on acne at the clinical level. 40 Future studies may also optimize the concentration and delivery of CBD for the treatment of acne. In conclusion, CBD may be beneficial as an adjuvant anti-inflammatory treatment for acne.
SD thanks the Miller School of Medicine of the University of Miami for the Lucille P. Markey Chair in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.